What Is the Psychology Behind The Kama Sutra?

The Kama Sutra is an ancient text written by Vatsyayana around the 2nd CAD in India. He was of the Vedic tradition, from which the Trinity god made its way into Christianity. Prior to writing and printing there were images in stone that show exotic sexual poses, such as in the Hindi sex temples at Khajuharo. While they show an obsession with sexual pleasure the reason behind them is the psychology born of a desire to fertilise the Mother God.

This is now such a way-out proposition that many would dismiss it as fanciful. The facts, however, speak of a time when men were so obsessed with their fertilising abilities that they dreamed big and the modern faiths are born of them. The one mystery that all men have dealt with throughout history has been that of sex.

It was not only a question of what drives it but of the physical changes in a man’s body when passion and desire takes charge of it. The penis became the most used symbol in ancient societies and all over Europe the ‘menhirs’ stand as a testimony. Some are positioned in such a way that the sun forms a star on the peak of it.

Mountains are considered places of holiness because here when the sun passes behind the peak it forms a star. The seven-point and five-point stars are designed on this image and they remain a symbol of the Mother God.

The psychology of men able to use their male organ in this way was the purpose of contests. ‘Semen’ is derived from ‘see-man’ and one can only imagine the types of challenges that were invented to show how much of the magic fluid one could produce, and how often. The winner was the ‘her-o’ or ‘her circle’. In other words, he passed through the circle to ‘marry’ Mary and live as her consort from then on.

Mary was the name of the Mother-god in Babylon and here, as in other cities, walls of breasts were displayed for the purpose of caressing and introducing fore-play into the marriage. The images in the Kama Sutra and in the temples of India, Japan, and elsewhere, are reminders that this is what lies behind the philosophy of religions.

My reincarnation demonstrates that there are no such places as heaven and hell but that they are weapons to force people to accept the beliefs of our ancestors. The psychology is still based on reconciliation with the god in heaven and to make men powerful. It also has the effect of turning women into chattels and forcing them to cover up. That way their presence is less offensive to the sun.

As verification of how influential the sun is in religions the old symbolism and associated names tell the story. In ancient rock art, such as found in the Nordic Countries, men are depicted rising upwards with a cross either on their bodies or as a kite lifting them. This symbol is encircled to display both symbols as related to crufixion. Those who supposedly passed on in this way were drawn with them above their heads.

They are then terms ‘san’t’ for ‘sun’s cross’ and this became ‘saint’. ‘San’ stands for sun, saint, and son, in many languages as a remnant of its origin. Sanskrit, the original language of Hindi, is from ‘san-script’ or ‘sun written’ and its early form is with signs taken from the sun. These are made as shadows, stars, and so on.

Men dying on crosses also made signs and sounds that found their way into language through interpretation by a high priest or Sharman. He was considered to be in close relationship with the sun and, therefore, able to pass on her messages. It is also the reason why ‘holy men’ in India are usually found on the peaks where they remain in close connection with the celestial body.

Their role is one of psychologically enforcing the will of the Mother God over those who seek help or knowledge. For this reason, they are kept by the community which supplies them with food and other essentials for their life and comfort.

The Psychology Behind Catholic Claims of Angels and the Origin of Its Relics

Everything the Vatican has done over the years has been to add credibility to its claims. The question is how credible are they in the light of the fanciful notions presented to the public, most of which are beyond belief? Many of the relics were supposedly brought to Rome by Helena, the mother of the emperor, Constantine, after he established the organisation in 325 AD. The ‘relics’ of Christ include his crucifixion more than 300 years after his death.

The psychology at play here is that one believes what they see with their eyes, rather than what they know or feel in their heart. This is the Roman way and it was started in Babylon where the Islamic religion had its origin. There Nebuchadnezzar and others used imagery to impress and prove their claims. This strengthened the wall that imprisons God’s people.

If a religion is spiritual and really serves God, why is credibility important? My link to the Spirit is such that it commissioned me to remove the wall of blindness and restore reality. The size of the barrier is such that the earth was plunged into darkness and covered with evil.

The Spirit works inside everyone to direct them onto the right course to complete the plan in place from the beginning. It is written of in the Old Testament prophecies and involves the Second Beast of Revelation who it points out is the Assyrian (Isaiah 14:25) and 666 (Revelation 13:12-18).

The problem with credibility for the Church is that Rome was sacked by Titus in 70 AD and Jerusalem was raised to the ground. Not even the wall around it survived. The Temple Mount was destroyed and even the treasures that had been hidden were uncovered and taken to Rome.

Helena, despite this, returned to Rome with things the Church claims were used by Jesus Christ, such as the stairs he supposedly walked up to the trial with Pontius Pilate. Even more incredulous is the House of Loreto. This basilica surrounding this extraordinary structure is carved out of stone and decorated with well carved images.

The house itself is said to be the home of the Virgin Mary during her childhood and the place where she conceived Jesus. With dimension of some 8.5 by 3.8 and 4.1 high, a large house by any measure, this 2 story structure was apparently brought to Croatia in 1291 by angels when threatened with it was threatened with destruction by the Turks.

It was again carried by angels across the Adriatic Sea to Italy in 1294. It was then moved to Loreto. This incredible tale is apparently supported by the number of miracles at each of its sites. Of course, there is no verification of any of this yarn. Psychologically, however, people believe it and are led to believe they are healed by its influence.

Healing by suggestion is not unknown and when someone believes strongly enough they can create the right vibes. We don’t understand how that happens but hypnosis is certainly a pointer in this direction. Self hypnosis is not impossible.

Other relics the Church holds because of Helena’s trip to Jerusalem include what are purported to be parts of the origin cross, nails that held Christ to it, and even milk from the breast of the Virgin Mary. While many may laugh at this collection and its unlikely credibility it brings pilgrims by the thousands to the places where they are housed.

They are one of the biggest money spinners the church owns. The bones of St. Peter were also supposedly recovered beneath the Vatican a few years ago. They are now on display in a humid, stuffy, tomb beneath the Basilica. The number who clamber to see it makes getting a ticket very hard.

One can see, therefore, how religious psychology works to preserved the faith and fool the public. The more people who believe in the stories and are engulfed by the power of relics the greater the organisation becomes and the more money pours into its coffers.

Why Communism and Religion Operate With The Same Psychology

Over years of observing them what struck me the most was how similar in principle are the two extremes of communism and religion. While the first is a modern form of nation dominance the second is probably the oldest. As people wake up to the facts about nature, the world, and the universe religion has lost its place as the great source of mystery while communism has filled the gap to enable powerful men to continue in power.

While Karl Marx is credited with the philosophy in the mid 19th century the main objective of state control leading to a collective ownership of wealth, property, and economic enterprise. His ideology sprouted wings and was successful in underdeveloped and poverty-stricken countries. The appeal was an overthrow of the rich and equality for all.

In Russia, the first communist nation, the Tsar and his family lived in luxury while the rest of the country struggled under the burden of the first World War. The Industrial Revolution of 1917 saw their removal and murder as the Bolshevik Party seized power. They had their eyes on the world as they saw their struggle as an International one. Their propaganda reached into most countries where governments fought to eradicate them.

Religion, on the other hand, has long been a nation dominating force with eyes on the world. In countries where it has succeeded the governments are virtually controlled by members of whatever religion they belong to.

The most striking example are the Muslim countries of the East and Catholic dominated nations of Italy and Ireland in the west. The Jewish religion dominates Israel while Hindi controls the population in India. Russia was Orthodox prior to the Industrial Revolution.

In today’s world a sizable degree of the global population is dominated either by religion or communism. China, which has something like 20% or one fifth of the world’s population is the largest and India with 17.86% is second. Combined these two nations hold one-third of all peoples.

The Muslim religion now cover 23% of the total and the Christian population makes up to 33% in 2017 of which some 16% or half of that number are Catholic.

The trend in all these systems is to grow by population growth, influence, and conversion. Where people are agnostic the birth rate is declining and so are church attendances. There is now a major shift in the world’s demographics and in the things people associate with.

It struck me that people only need strong leadership no matter what type it is. They also appear to be least worried about their spirituality. That may come from religion, communism, or politics. Whatever it is basically the world continues in the same manner and the situation in the world declines according to the loss of faith, readiness for war, aggression towards each other, and terrorism, which is based on a rush to get to heaven.

Whatever force has the most power it wins out, whether through revolution, murder of dissenters, the rise of dictators, or anything else. There is not one that is better than another as they are all after one thing – control of a bigger empire and ultimately the world.

Classic Experiments in Psychology

As Psychology moved further away from philosophy and towards science, more and more experiments began to be conducted. These experiments have revealed important insights regarding the nature of human behaviour. Some of these revelations are taken for granted in the modern world as their discoveries are now widely known. However, at the time, they were rather controversial.

The Stanford Prison Experiment

The Stanford Prison Experiment was conducted in August 1971 by Philip Zimbardo, a Psychology Professor in Stanford University. The experiment aimed to examine the psychological impact of a prison environment on prisoners and guards.

In order to test this, Zimbardo built a mock prison in the basement of Stanford University. A group of 24 participants were randomly allocated to the positions of guards or prisoners with Zimbardo taking on the role of the prison Superintendent. The participants were all screened beforehand and deemed to be “normal, healthy male college students who were predominantly middle class and white”. The prisoners were taken from their houses, handcuffed by real police officers and taken to the mock prison where they were stripped and deloused. The prisoners stayed in the prison 24 hours a day while the guards only worked an eight hour shift and returned home afterwards. All participants received $15 per day, partly funded by the US Navy.

The guards wore mirrored sunglasses, a khaki uniform, nightstick and a whistle while the prisoners wore a smock with an ID number sewn onto the front and back, a stocking cap and a chain locked around their ankles. The uniforms were designed to de-humanise the guards and prisoners while making the guards appear to have total control over the prisoners’ lives. The guards were instructed to “maintain a reasonable degree of order” but almost immediately began to abuse their position. The guards would force the prisoners to complete exercises, they would strip them naked and degrade them, remove their mattresses and force them to sleep on the concrete and would punish prisoners by making them urinate and defecate in a bucket in their cells but not allow the bucket to be emptied. They had become truly immersed in their role.

The experiment was supposed to last two weeks but ended after only 6 days. By that stage, five prisoners had already been released due to severe depression. Zimbardo himself became so immersed in his role as the prison Superintendent he found that his ability to be impartial was severely impaired. Zimbardo had to be confronted by Professor Christina Maslach (whom he would later marry) about the ethical issues of the experiment before he realised that he had failed in his duty of care to these young participants and ended the study. This experiment cemented Zimbardo’s idea that good people, if put in bad environments, can be capable of great wrongdoing. Zimbardo dubbed this phenomenon “The Lucifer Effect”.

Milgram and Obedience

After the Second World War, surviving Nazis were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials. A common defence for them was to say that they were “just following orders”. Thus, Stanley Milgram, a Psychologist at Yale University devised an experiment to test whether anyone could be susceptible to this or if Germans were unusually obedient to their superiors.

Milgram began experiments in July 1961. He advertised in the newspaper for male participants for an experiment on “learning”. There were three people involved: the Experimenter, Teacher (Participant) and Learner (Actor). The Teacher and Learner would then be separated into different rooms where they can communicate but not see one another. The Teacher believed that the Learner’s cognitive abilities were being tested but in actuality, it was the Teacher’s obedience to authority. The Learner was supposedly hooked up to electrodes and each time they gave a wrong answer the Teacher would administer an electric shock which increased in severity with each wrong answer. The shocks went from 15 volts (mild) to 450 volts (Death). The Teacher would be given a sample electric shock before beginning to feel the pain caused to the Learner.

The Psychology of Judgment

On why external judgment is based on internal knowledge, and the necessity to understand subjective and objective aspects as well as qualitative and quantitative factors in judgment.

Human knowledge and judgment are interrelated and people usually judge others according to how much they know about other people. Judgment is based on several external factors like attitudes, beliefs and of course knowledge. Judgment can be largely subjective although I would argue that it is necessary to develop a framework for objective judgment.

Let’s consider an example. You want to judge the work of an artist or a poet. If you are unable to understand the artist’s subjective impression of creativity, you will not be able to judge correctly. So there are two things you must consider while judging someone’s work. First, come up with a chart, table or matrix on a person’s subjective and objective attributes. What is the background of the artist? Why did he create the particular work of art? What is the motivation of the artist? What are the subjective conditions that helped him to create the piece of art? What are the obvious or objective attributes of the artist such as his training or affiliations? Consider the subjective attributes of the artist and how he thinks or expresses himself. Secondly, consider the subjective and objective attributes of the work of art. What are the different interpretations of the work of art? Is the art piece well executed in precision and detail? So for every judgment consider the subjective and objective attributes of the author or artist and the subjective and objective attributes of the writing or work of art or poetry or essay that you will judge. Every judgment must be comprehensive with all these four considerations of subjective and objective attributes of the individual concerned and subjective and objective attributes of the work.

It is necessary to develop objective judgment and consider an individual and his work on the basis of some objective measurements. For instance, at work if you must judge your colleagues, juniors or even superiors, you must do so according to a well-developed objective system of measuring attributes. This could be a matrix, rating scale, chart, table or questionnaire. Systematic and objective judgments are far more productive and useful to others than disorganized subjective judgments that are personally formed according to one’s beliefs and attitudes. So, let’s say you are a customer of a product and you are required to judge the functionalities of the product, you must give your judgment in a systematic manner according to a specific tool or a questionnaire or rating scale. Systematic judgment is always more productive for a company than a random judgment which you describe in a few sentences because systematic judgments can be quantified. Organizations and companies are most productive when they develop a systematic rating or judgment scale for their activities, performance and products as this helps these organizations to quantify and assess their capabilities and weaknesses in a precise manner.

If the performance of a company or organization, an individual or a product requires a systematized tool for judgment, you would ask “how do we effectively judge people or products randomly?” Now suppose you are traveling or shopping. You are judging people and things all the time. This is unconscious judgment and our everyday judgment is based not on a systematic tool for judgment but rather on our internal knowledge, beliefs and attitudes. When we shop, we judge the products. When we socialize, we judge people’s actions and behavior, when we travel we judge the culture and customs of the people living in the region. So we unconsciously judge others and often even ourselves and our actions, and this judgment is more random, instantaneous rather than objective or systematic. This random everyday judgment is usually very subjective. So,in order to judge people or products better and to make better decisions, your judgments must consider the objective and subjective attributes of the individual being judged or the subjective and objective attributes of the products being considered. So next time you judge a person or go shopping and need to make your judgments before buying a product, develop a quick matrix or table in your head and consider all the objective and subjective components of the individual or product. Your own inner knowledge is key to this process of judgment. Before making a judgment, develop your understanding or knowledge of the product or the person. So, do this little exercise before you go shopping for a product or trying to invest in the next company. Create a matrix if the subjective and objective attributes of the company and its products or services. What is the difference between subjective and objective attributes? Well, the subjective attributes of a company or product could relate to names, colors of the product or how these could be subjectively interpreted by the audience or customers. The objective attributes of a company or product or individual are more tangible, measurable and in case of a product could be related to shape or price, for an individual objective attributes are about external physical features or for a company it could be sales, company ratings and annual financial performance.

So read up and do your research on a company or a product before you decide to buy a product or invest in a company. Your knowledge is an essential part of the judgment and since personal, random judgments are unsystematic or even unscientific, and based primarily on your subjective understanding, attitudes, beliefs and knowledge, try to come up with a way that will change your subjective judgment into an objective one. You can do this by developing a table, chart, graphic plot or matrix. Once you are used to this sort of systematic judgment, you will find that you are able to make better decisions. Initially developing a method of systematic decision-making could be tedious and time-consuming, because you have to sit and draw a table or graph. However with every systematic judgment, you will get better at the exercise and will be finally able to come to a sound decision by considering the objective and subjective factors inside your head. Now suppose a woman is trying to buy a handbag, will she draw up a chart, or a matrix to decide whether she should buy the handbag? You will say, this kind of quantification takes away the fun from shopping. Yet systematic decision-making us about making precise judgments that will balance the objective and subjective factors. So, even if the woman does not actually sit with her chart or matrix, she should consider the table or chart of subjective and objective factors of the product in her head before reaching the final decision. In fact if the handbag is really expensive, it is advisable to come up with your own systematized tool of decision-making. Handbags apart, this sort of methodical and systematic judgment will help you to be analytical and objective, you can easily delineate the factors that will facilitate in the decision-making process. Thus, using your inner knowledge and attitudes or beliefs in making a judgment will get you halfway and will possibly provide with a qualitative insight. You must use a quick systematic and analytical or measurable, quantitative or objective method before making a final

The Psychology of Knowledge

On the theories of knowledge and the factors that affect human knowledge.

To understand the philosophy and psychology of knowledge, we must focus on the theories of knowledge and the factors that affect human. When we say “Knowledge is power”, it definitely means that when we are armed with knowledge, we feel the power of the world in us. Knowledge makes us powerful and strong and that is why, it is so important. Some people think money is power. Not true. Say if you leave this planet and go to live on Mars. Your currencies and all the money will be of no use. But if you have enough knowledge on how to survive the planetary conditions on Mars, that will help you to stay alive.

We must first try to understand “what is knowledge?”. There is no general consensus on what knowledge is or how it is acquired. Knowledge is derived from “to know” and knowing can be believing something to be true. But is belief the same as knowledge? Not really. Because you may believe in ghosts or spirits, but do not really know who or what these spirits are. But you know that the earth rotates once in 24 hours because there is scientific evidence. You know that the tree in your garden will bear fruit during certain times of the year so you believe that you will get the fruits during that time. So, what we see here is that all knowledge creates belief, but all belief is not knowledge.

So the next question is obviously “how is Knowledge acquired?” To answer this question, we need to understand the different theories of knowledge.

Theories of Knowledge

Empiricism or Empirical Analysis

Among the most influential theories of knowledge is empiricism or empirical knowledge, Empiricism was developed as a theory to describe scientific or observational knowledge. So empirical knowledge is knowledge gained via observation or by use of the senses. This is the method of scientific inquiry as you use observation or the power of the senses to derive knowledge. Scientific experimentation uses the observational method and the experimental method or analysis is finally based on the senses. What you see, hear, touch, smell or taste helps in gaining knowledge. But is this the ultimate or only knowledge? No, because our senses are limited. So knowledge gained from scientific data could be limited.

Rationalism or Logical Analysis

Another form of knowledge is knowledge gained through rational analysis or logic. Logical analysis is what you do when you reach a logical conclusion from a set of data or principles. For example, when you have symptoms of high temperature, headaches, weakness etc, you come to a logical analysis that you are ill. When you see an overcast sky, black clouds and predictions of rain on the television, you come to a logical analysis that it will rain and you must carry your umbrella or raincoat. We consider certain premises or factors, try to understand their interrelationships and then reach logical conclusions. So, rational analysis is also a method of knowledge because you use facts or factors to know something or derive a conclusion.

Experientialism or Experiential Analysis

Experientialism is experiential knowledge or knowledge derived from experience. The term was first propagated by Lakoff and Johnson in 1980. Experientialism is experiential knowledge, so it is possible to suggest that we actively analyze our experiences to derive knowledge and understanding from these experiences. You know from your experience that an aircraft accelerates its speed on the runway before takeoff, or that soaking in the rain may give you chills. You know from your experience that your dog will greet you excitedly when you reach home but your wife may not be too excited. This is experiential knowledge.. Experiential Knowledge is important in understanding the Psychology of Knowledge as human experiences are at the core of many psychological theories, including psychoanalysis.

Literalism or Literal Analysis

Knowledge is often gained from an obvious source – books. I call this literalism or literal analysis as this may not be related to critical or literary analysis, but a literal analysis of what you have read or understood. Books, papers,internet sources and the written word help us to gain significant knowledge about the world. This is what we can describe as literary or literal analysis and the process of gaining knowledge is literalism. We are either critical of what we read or we accept what we read. Either way, we learn and gain knowledge from all reading sources and this is an important method of acquiring knowledge. When you systematically study the Psychology of Human Knowledge, you must consider how the individual acquired knowledge from books, papers, internet or other sources. The knowledge acquired during adolescent or young adult years is very significant, as this will shape the mind and create or influence thinking. So, when you are studying the mind of a terrorist, try to understand what reading sources may have influenced him. Some people are more influenced by what they read, rather than what they experience or hear. The power of the book or the internet is immense. Reading creates beliefs and there may not be any rational explanation as to why certain people believe in certain things although reading greatly influences thinking.

Innatism or Internal Analysis

This type of knowledge is about inner knowing or happens due to the internal processing of the knowledge already embedded in us. Plato, Greek philosophers, other ancient philosophers and prophets have repeatedly emphasized the knowledge of the soul. Internal analysis is about knowledge that already exists within us or knowledge that we are born with. Call it the Jungian collective unconscious or call it the soul, internal analysis is about gaining access to the knowledge embedded deep within us. So this is the innate knowledge or wisdom and one of the most important types of knowledge that could be considered a priori or not acquired through observation or experience. To understand innate knowledge, psychologists must study wisdom and the soul knowledge of prodigies. Some prodigies are born with a powerful soul or innate knowledge and show their remarkable abilities only a few years after birth. Studying the talents and wisdom of prodigies would provide significant insights on the soul knowledge of human beings. Nurturing this knowledge would be essential to developing talents in children and wisdom in adults.

I will now move on to the factors in knowledge. What are the factors that affect human knowledge? The theories of knowledge show how knowledge is acquired, but the factors help us to identify the mechanisms or processes responsible for human knowledge. Knowledge is about habit, maybe your reading habits or your writing which will help you to develop knowledge, about beliefs and attitudes that you develop in childhood, about your subjective understanding of the world, and is largely associated with your interests and inclinations to know the world in a particular way. If you are a psychologist, trying to understand the process of knowledge in human beings, how would you do it? Start with a questionnaire that will determine the five types of knowledge that are mentioned above. Determine which type of knowledge has strongly affected the subject and draw your conclusions on what type of knowledge analysis would best describe the personality of the individual. It is important to develop a knowledge analysis model in Psychology considering the five theories I have described above.